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STPP

Chemical formula: Na₅P₃O₁

Sodium Tripolyphosphate (STPP),

STPP is a colourless salt, which exists both in anhydrous form and as the hexahydrate. STPP is consumed as a component of commercial detergents. It serves as a "builder," industrial jargon for a water softener. Its key function is that it allows surfactants to work at their full potential. Also, it prevents deposition of soil and acts as a pH buffer. It softens detergent water and can be used as a water treatment, as well.

Sodium triphosphate (STP), also sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tripolyphosphate (TPP),[1]) is an inorganic compound with formula Na5P3O10. It is the sodium salt of the polyphosphate penta-anion, which is the conjugate base of triphosphoric acid. It is produced on a large scale as a component of many domestic and industrial products, especially detergents. Environmental problems associated with eutrophication are attributed to its widespread use.

Uses

In detergents

The majority of STPP is consumed as a component of commercial detergents. It serves as a "builder," industrial jargon for a water softener. In hard water (water that contains high concentrations of Mg2+ and Ca2+), detergents are deactivated. Being a highly charged chelating agent, TPP5− binds to dications tightly and prevents them from interfering with the sulfonate detergent.

Food applications

STPP is a preservative for seafood, meats, poultry, and animal feeds.[5] It is common in food production as E number E451. In foods, STPP is used as an emulsifier and to retain moisture. Many governments regulate the quantities allowed in foods, as it can substantially increase the sale weight of seafood in particular. The United States Food and Drug Administration lists STPP as "generally recognized as safe."

Other uses

Other uses (hundreds of thousands of tons/year) include ceramics (decrease the viscosity of glazes up to a certain limit), leather tanning (as masking agent and synthetic tanning agent - SYNTAN), anticaking, setting retarders, flame retardants, paper, anticorrosion pigments, textiles, rubber manufacture, fermentation, antifreeze." TPP is used as a polyanion crosslinker in polysaccharide based drug delivery.

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